Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. The vast majority of rabies cases reported in Yugoslavia each year occur in foxes. Domestic animals account for less than 10% of the reported rabies cases, with cats most often reported rabid, and occasionally in dogs, cattle, sheep and goats.
Rabies virus infects the central nervous system, causing fatal encephalitis and ultimately death. Early symptoms of rabies in humans are nonspecific, consisting of fever, headache, and general malaise. As the disease progresses, neurological symptoms appear and may include insomnia, anxiety, confusion, slight or partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hyper salivation, difficulty swallowing, and hydrophobia. Death usually occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.
Public health importance of rabies
Over the last 100 years, rabies in the Yugoslavia has changed dramatically. More than 90% of all animal cases reported annually now occur in wildlife; In northern part of country urban rabies was eliminated before 1960, in Central Serbia at the end of seventies and in Kosovo and Metohija in early 1980. The principal rabies hosts today are foxes. The latest human deaths in the Yugoslavia were registered in 1980. on Kosovo i Metohija. Modern prophylaxis has proven with 100% successful. In Yugoslavia, animals bite about 10.000 persons annually. Only 10% of them are treated against rabies.
Post exposure prophylaxis in Yugoslavia is organized over the Net of Antirabic stations in Institutes of Public Health or Clinics for Infective Diseases across the country and it is free of coast for all of the patients. In last 10 years HRIG is produced in Yugoslavia, with high quality and good potency. Since 1990 the Institute for Blood Transfusion in Belgrade and Pasteur Institute in Novi Sad have been producing HRIG. Nowadays human rabies vaccine from cell culture is imported but in few last years we developed human rabies vaccine on BHK cell culture for human use. Now it is in clinical trails on human volunteers. We have good results in all with high antibodies titer and mild adverse reaction at the inoculation site.
Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, negative-
Rhabdoviruses are approximately 100-
The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. The interaction of the G protein and specific cell surface receptors may be involved. After adsorption, the virus penetrates the host cell and enters the cytoplasm by pinocytosis. The virions aggregate in the large endosomes (cytoplasmic vesicles). The viral membranes fuse to the endosomal membranes, causing the release of viral RNP into the cytoplasm. Since lyssaviruses have a linear single-
The history of active immunization by vaccine began 115 years ago with Louis Pasteur, who sought a post exposure vaccination against rabies in man. Pasteur protected a 9-
Development of WHO approved BHK -